Synthesis of Tin Oxide Thin Layer by Doping Aluminum, Fluorine, and Indium Using Sol-Gel Spin Coating Technique

Autor(s): Aris Doyan, Susilawati Susilawati, Lalu Muliyadi
DOI: 10.29303/jppipa.v7i1.468


The synthesis of tin oxide thin films with doping aluminum, fluorine, and indium (SnO2: Al + F + In) by sol-gel spin coating technique has been successfully carried out. This synthesis aims to determine the quality of the thin film formed by adding doping aluminum, fluorine, and indium. The basic material used is SnCl2.2H2O, while the doping material used is AlCl3, NH4F, and InCl3.4H2O. The comparison of the basic ingredients and doping mixture of aluminum, fluorine and indium (SnO2: Al+F +In) used were 100: 0%, 95: 5%, 90: 10%, 85: 15%, 80: 20% and 75: 25%. The synthesis uses a glass substrate with size (10 x 10 x 3) mm. Coating synthesis includes substrate preparation, sol-gel making, film making, and sample heating. The layers that are made consist of 1 to 4 layers. The results showed that the layer formed had a high degree of transparency along with the increasing concentration of the doping material percentage. The higher the doping concentrations of aluminum, fluorine, and indium, the higher the transparency of the resulting layer. Besides, the greater the number of layers, the lower the transparency level of the layers


Thin layer; SnO2; aluminum; fluorine; indium; sol-gel; spin coating.

Full Text:



Andrade, D.F., Fortunato, F.M., & Pereira-Filho, E.R. (2019). Calibration Strategies for Determination of the in Content in Discarded Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) from Mobile Phones Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Analytica Chimica Acta, 1061, 42-49. DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2019.02.038.

Bittau, F., Abbas, A., Barth, K.L., Bowers, J.W., & Walls, J.M. (2017). The Effect of Temperature on Resistive ZnO Layers and the Performance of Thin Film CdTe Solar Cells. Thin Solid Films, 633, 92-96.

Doyan, A., Susilawati, Imawanti, Y.D. Gunawan, E.R. & Taufik, M. (2017). Characterization Thin Film Nano Particle Of Aluminum Tin Oxide (AITO) as Touch Screen. Journal of Physics, 1097, 1-9.

Doyan, A., Susilawati & Imawanti, Y.D. (2017). Synthesis and Characterization of SnO2 thin layer with a doping Aluminum is deposited on Quartz Substrates. American Institute of Physics, 1801, 1-7.

Doyan, A., Susilawati, Fitri, S.A. & Ahzan, S. (2017). Cristal Structure Charaterization of Thin Layer Zinc Oxide. Materials Science and Engineering, 196, 1-6.

Doyan, A., & Humaini. 2017. Sifat Optik Lapisan Tipis ZnO. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika dan Teknologi, 3(1), 34-39.

Doyan, A., Susilawati, Ikraman, N., & Taufik, M. (2018). Characterization of SnO2 Film with Al-Zn Doping Using Sol-Gel Dip Coating Techniques. Journal of Physics, 1011, 1-6. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/1011/1/012015.

Doyan, A., Susilawati, Hakim, S., Muliyadi, L., & Taufik, M. (2019). The Effect of Indium Doped SnO2 Thin Films on Optical Properties Prepared by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Technique. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1397 (012005), 1-8. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/1397/1/012005.

Doyan, A., Susilawati, Hakim, S., Muliyadi, L., & Taufik, M. 2020. The Effect of Annealing Temperature Thin Films Indium Doped SnO2 to Optics Properties and Material Composition. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1572 (012072), 1-8. DOI:1088/1742-6596/1572/1/012072.

Doyan, A., Susilawati, Harjono, A., Azzahra, S., & Taufik, M. 2019. Characterization of Tin Oxide Doping Antimony Thin Layer With Sol-Gel Spin Coating Method for Electronic Device. Materials Science Forum, 966:30-34.

Gullu, H. H., Isik, M., Delice, S., Parlak, M., & · Gasanly, N. M. (2020). Material and device Properties of Si based Cu0.5Ag0.5InSe2 Thin film

Heterojunction Diode. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 31, 1566–1573. DOI:

Hakim, S. Doyan, A., Susilawati, & Muliyadi, L. (2019). Synthesis Thin Films SnO2 with Doping Indium by Sol-gel Spin coating. Journal of Research in Science Education, 5 (2), 171 -174. DOI: 10.29303/jppipa.v5i2.254.

Hegazya, A.R., Salameha, B., & Alsmadia, A.M. (2019). Optical Transitions and Photoluminescence of Fluorine-Doped Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis. Ceramics International, 45 (15), 19473–19480 DOI:

Ikraman‚ N., Doyan, A. & Susilawati. (2017). Penumbuhan Film SnO2 dengan Doping

Al-Zn Menggunakan Teknik Solgel Dip Coating. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika dan Teknologi, 3(2), 228-231. DOI:

Imawanti, Y.D., Doyan, A. & Gunawan, E.R. (2017). Sintesis Lapisan Tipis (Thin Film) SnO2 dan SnO2:Al Menggunakan Teknik Sol-Gel Spin Coating pada Substrat Kaca dan Quartz. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 3(1), 1-9. DOI: 10.29303/jppipa.v3i1.49.

Kendall, O., Wainer, P., Barrow, S., Embden, J.V., & Gaspera., E.D. (2020). Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Colloidal Nanocrystals. Nanomaterials, 10(863), 1-8. DOI:10.3390/nano10050863.

Khorshidi, B., Hosseini, S.A., Ma, G., McGregor, M., Sadrzadeh, M. (2019). Novel Nanocomposite Polyethersulfone- Antimony Tin Oxide Membrane with Enhanced Thermal, Electrical and Antifouling Properties. Polymer, 163, 48-56. DOI:

Liu L T, Liu Y, Duan X F. (2020). Graphene-based vertical thin film transistors. Sci China Inf Sci,

(10), 1-12. DOI: 10.1007/s11432-020-2806-8.

Medhi, R., Li, C.H., Lee, S.H., Marquez, M.D., Jacobson, A.J, Lee, T.C., & Lee, T.R. (2019). Uniformly Spherical and Monodisperse Antimony- and Zinc-Doped Tin Oxide Nanoparticles for Optical and Electronic Applications. ACS Applied Nano Materials, 2, 6554 −6564. DOI: 10.1021/acsanm.9b0147.

Muliyadi, L., Doyan, A., Susilawati, & Hakim, S. (2019). Synthesis of SnO2 Thin Film with a Doping Fluorine by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Method. Journal of Research in Science Education, 5(2), 175-178. DOI: 10.29303/jppipa.v5i2.257.

Munandar, H., Doyan, A., & Susilawati, S. (2020). Synthesis of SnO2 Thin Coatings by Indium and Aluminum Mixed Doping using the Sol-Gel Spin-Coating Technique. Journal of Research in Science Education. 6(2), 153-156.

DOI: 10.29303/jppipa.v6i2.391.

Rebholz, J., Dee, C., Weimar, U., & Barsan, N. (2015). A Self-Doping Surface Effect and Its Influence On The Sensor Performance Of Undoped SnO2 Based Gas Sensors. Procedia Engineering, 120, 83 – 87.

Susilawati, A. Doyan, L. Muliyadi, & S. Hakim. (2019). Growth of Tin Oxide Thin Film by Aluminum and Fluorine Doping Using Spin Coating Sol-Gel Techniques. Journal of Research in Science Education, 6 (1), 1-4. DOI: 10.29303/jppipa.v6i1.264.

Susilawati, Doyan, A., Muliyadi, L., Hakim, S., Taufik, M., & Nazarudin. (2019). Characteristics and Optical Properties of Fluorine Doped SnO2 Thin Film Prepared by a Sol–Gel Spin Coating. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1397(012003), 1-8. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/1397/1/012003.

Susilawati, Doyan, A., Muliyadi, L., Hakim, S., & Taufik, M. (2020). The Thickness Effect to Optical Properties Of SnO2 Thin Film with Doping Fluorine. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1572 (012085), 1-7. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/1572/1/012085.


  • There are currently no refbacks.