In facing the challenges of the 21st century, mastery of concepts is needed by students. Mastery of a person's concept can be known by analyzing his mental model. This study aims to determine the mental model of high school students on virus concepts. The method used is descriptive method. Respondents in this study were 30 high school students in class X. Analysis of students' mental models was carried out using drawing-writing techniques, concept maps, interviews, and questionnaires. The drawing-writing technique was focused on knowing the students' mental models about the concept of virus structure and reproduction, while the concept map was used to analyze the entire concepts of the virus. The results showed that students' mental models were still low and students' understanding of viruses was not yet structured. Based on the results of the drawing-writing test, the majority of students' mental models on the concept of virus structure were at the D3W3 level. In the concept of non-enveloped virus reproduction, the majority of students are at the D5W5 level. In the concept of enveloped virus reproduction, the majority of students are at the D1W1 level. The results of the students' mental models analyzed by concept maps were at the developing and transitional levels. The results of the comparison of students' mental models with expert mental models show that students' mental models are not close to expert mental models. Students' mental models are generally incomplete and have no connection between one concept and another.
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