Analysis of Classroom Action Research Studies: The Effectiveness of Inquiry Learning Models on Biology Education Undergraduate Students Problem Solving Ability
AuthorsFemmy Roosje Kawuwung , Jimmi Andrew Mamahit
Issue:Vol. 9 No. 8 (2023): August
Keywords:Action Research, Inquiry, Learning Models, Problem-Solving, Skills
How to Cite
The ability to solve problems is a skill that students should have in the 21st century to support better life activities. Observations on learning activities found that students were still relatively passive in learning activities, lacked confidence in conveying ideas, lacked the motivation to learn, and had no more interaction between students during learning, which affected low problem-solving abilities. It is in line with the evidence obtained through the acquisition of pre-research data where the results of problem-solving abilities include indicators of understanding problems with an average score of 55.63, indicators of preparing a settlement plan with an average value of 43.78, indicators of implementing a settlement plan with an average value of 50.37, and the indicator checks back with an average value of 46.53. Low problem-solving abilities can impact the quality of life of students who are less able to compete for jobs in the future. Increasing student solving needs to be considered so that from these problems, it is necessary to conduct classroom action research using the inquiry learning model to improve student problem-solving abilities, where this model has learning steps in guiding students to study in a directed manner and be able to solve problems. The research sample was 21 undergraduate students in Biology Education program. They obtained data through student activity questionnaires, student responses to learning models, model teacher activity questionnaires, and the results of problem-solving skills through giving test questions in the form of essays. This classroom action research was conducted in 3 learning cycles, with an average score between cycle I of 45.96%, cycle II of 94.78%, and cycle III of 95.26%. The acquisition of the average value shows an increase in problem-solving results between cycles I and II, cycles I and III. Testing the effectiveness of the learning model was carried out by the N-Gain test of 86.63% with the interpretation of "effective," and the distribution of the N-Gain score of 0.86 was greater than g > 0.7 with the "high" category. Obtaining these data can be concluded that the inquiry learning model effectively improves students' problem-solving abilities.
methods, and evaluation activities are prepared to achieve learning objectives very well (Moye et al., 2014; Rahman Ahmad et al., 2020).
The results of the study can be concluded that the calculation of the average comparison and calculation through N-Gain, the inquiry learning model is effective and can improve students' problem-solving abilities, where this can be seen from the learning outcomes from cycle I to cycle II, cycle II to cycle III and cycle I to cycle III. The use of inquiry learning models can be done in other learning to improve other skills possessed by students.
Conceptualization, F.R.K. and J.A.M.; methodology, software, validation, F.R.K.; writing - original draft preparation, formal analysis, investigation, F.R.K and J.A.M; resources, F.R.K.; data curation, writing—review and editing, F.R.K and J.A.M.; visualization, J.A.M.; supervision, project administration, funding acquisition, F.R.K. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
This research was funded by the Institute for Research and Community Service, Universitas Negeri Manado.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors state no conflict of interest in conducting research and publishing this manuscript
Altaftazani, D. H., Rahayu, G. D. S., & Kelana, J. B. (2020). An Analysis of Basic Interaction, Communication, Team Building, and Problem-Solving Skills of Primary School Students in Marching Band Activities. Elementary School Forum (Mimbar Sekolah Dasar), 7(2), 184–197. https://doi.org/10.17509/mimbar-sd.v7i2.26264
Ampuero, D., Miranda, C. E., Delgado, L. E., Goyen, S., & Weaver, S. (2015). Empathy and Critical Thinking: Primary Students Solving Local Environmental Problems Through Outdoor Learning. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 15(1), 64–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/14729679.2013.848817
Andrini, V. S. (2016). The Effectiveness of Inquiry Learning Method to Enhance Students ’ Learning Outcome : A Theoritical and Empirical Review. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(3), 38–42.
Bagassi, M., & Macchi, L. (2020). Creative Problem Solving as Overcoming a Misunderstanding. Frontiers in Education, 5(December), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2020.538202
Borge, M., Ong, Y. S., & Rosé, C. P. (2018). Learning to Monitor and Regulate Collective Thinking Processes. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 13, 61–92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-018-9270-5
Čadež, T. H., & Kolar, V. M. (2015). Comparison of Types of Generalizations and Problem-Solving Schemas Used to Solve a Mathematical Problem. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 89, 283–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-015-9598-y
Camus, R. M., Ngai, G., Kwan, K. P., Yau, J. H.-Y., & Chan, S. (2021). Knowing Where We Stand: Mapping Teachers’ Conception of Reflection in Service-Learning. Innovative Higher Education, 46(3), 285–302.
Chavan, R., & Patankar, P. (2018). Perception of Biological Concepts Among HigherSecondary Teachers: a Study. Aarhat Multidisciplinary International Education Research Journal, 48178, 144–153.
Chen, K., & Chen, C. (2021). Effects of STEM Inquiry Method on Learning Attitude and Creativity. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 17(11), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.29333/EJMSTE/11254
Damayanti, R. F., Hidayat, A., & Handayanto, S. K. (2021). Analisis Problem Solving Berdasarkan Kemampuan Awal Peserta Didik. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, Dan Pengembangan, 6(1), 64. https://doi.org/10.17977/jptpp.v6i1.14385
Fathabadi, J. (2023). The Hidden Side of Learning English as a Socially Motivated Behavior in Iran Educational System. Interchange, 54(2), 155–171.
Gani, M. A., Tumewu, W. A., & Wola, B. R. (2022). Motivasi Belajar Siswa Kelas VII SMP Anugerah Tondano pada Pembelajaran IPA di Era Pandemi Covid-19. SCIENING : Science Learning Journal, 3(1), 8–13. https://doi.org/10.53682/slj.v3i1.1845
García, T., Rodríguez, C., González-Castro, P., González-Pienda, J. A., & Torrance, M. (2016). Elementary Students’ Metacognitive Processes and Post-Performance Calibration on Mathematical Problem-Solving Tasks. Metacognition and Learning, 11, 139–170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-015-9139-1
Graesser, A. C., Fiore, S. M., Greiff, S., Andrews-Todd, J., Foltz, P. W., & Hesse, F. W. (2018). Advancing the Science of Collaborative Problem Solving. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(2), 59–92. https://doi.org/10.1177/15291006188082
Gunawan, Harjono, A., Nisyah, M., Kusdiastuti, M., & Herayanti, L. (2020). Improving Students’ Problem-Solving Skills Using Inquiry Learning Model Combined with Advance Organizer. International Journal of Instruction, 13(4), 427–442. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2020.13427a
Hadinugrahaningsih, T., Rahmawati, Y., & Ridwan, A. (2017). Developing 21st century skills in chemistry classrooms: Opportunities and challenges of STEAM integration. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1868(1), 30008. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4995107
Häkkinen, P., Järvelä, S., Mäkitalo-Siegl, K., Ahonen, A., Näykki, P., & Valtonen, T. (2017). Preparing Teacher-Students for Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices (PREP 21): a Framework for Enhancing Collaborative Problem-Solving and Strategic Learning Skills. Teachers and Teaching, 23(1), 25–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2016.1203772
Hanafi, H., Hidayah, N., Atmoko, A., Ramli, M., & Triyono. (2022). Cognitive Fusion on Counselor Performance: A Comparative Study of the Experienced and Novice Counselor. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 12(1), 48–55. https://doi.org/10.47750/pegegog.12.01.06
Hannula, M. S. (2015). Emotions in Problem Solving. Selected Regular Lectures from the 12th IIternational Congress on Mathematical Educationducation, 269–288. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-17187-6_16
Hees, V. Van, Moyson, T., & Roeyers, H. (2015). Higher Education Experiences of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Challenges, Benefits and Support Needs. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1673–1688. https://doi.org/10.1177/10534512070420050201.
Hwang, B.-G., & Ng, W. J. (2013). Project management knowledge and skills for green construction: Overcoming challenges. International Journal of Project Management, 31(2), 272–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2012.05.004
Isnaini, A., & Mulyono, M. (2019). Differences in Reflective Thinking Ability Between Creative Problem Solving and Discovery Learning Models Based on Gender. Journal of Education and Practice, 10(23), 2017–2020. https://doi.org/10.7176/jep/10-23-04
Jalinus, N., Syahril, & Nabawi, R. A. (2019). A Comparison of the Problem-Solving Skills of Students in PjBL versus CPjBL Model: An Experimental Study. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 11(1), 36–43. https://doi.org/10.30880/jtet.2019.11.01.005
Kale, U., & Akcaoglu, M. (2020). Problem Solving and Teaching How to Solve Problems in Technology-Rich Contexts. Peabody Journal of Education, 95(2), 127–138. https://doi.org/10.1080/0161956X.2020.1745612
Kärner, T. (2017). A mixed-methods study of physiological reactivity to domain-specific problem solving: Methodological perspectives for process-accompanying research in VET. Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40461-017-0054-3
Kawuwung, F. R. (2019). Validation on Learning Devices of Open Inquiry Integrated with Lesson Study-Based NHT to Improve Learning Result in Biology at Senior High School In North Minahasa. International Journal of Advanced Educational Research, 4(4), 14–17.
Kawuwung, F. R., & Kaunang, S. (2017). Guided Inquiry Learning Increase the Skill of Lesson-Based Study in Biology at Seventh Grade of State Junior High School 1 Airmadidi. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 4(8), 207–210.
Kawuwung, F. R., Mamahit, J. A., & Jabari, N. (2023). Enhancing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills: A Quasi-Experiment Study on Inquiry Learning Model. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, Dan Pengembangan, 8(4), 271–276.
Khastini, R. O., Maryani, N., Wahyuni, I., Leksono, S. M., & Lantanfi, N. P. T. (2021). Assisting Student Knowledge and Critical Thinking by E-Learning Media: Post-Harvest Fungi Poster. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 16(4), 1479–1491. https://doi.org/10.18844/cjes.v16i4.6002
Kirschner, P. A., & Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2013). Do Learners Really Know Best? Urban Legends in Education. Educational Psychologist, 48(3), 169–183. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2013.804395
Ledesma, J. (2014). Conceptual Frameworks and Research Models on Resilience in Leadership. SAGE Open, 4(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014545464
Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2013). Social Cognitive Model of Career Self-Management: Toward a Unifying View of Adaptive Career Behavior Across the Life Span. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(4), 557. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033446
Llera, S. J., & Newman, M. G. (2020). Worry Impairs the Problem-Solving Process: Results from an Experimental Study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 135, 103759.
Mahanal, S., Zubaidah, S., Setiawan, D., Maghfiroh, H., & Muhaimin, F. G. (2022). Empowering College Students’ Problem-Solving Skills through RICOSRE. Education Sciences, 12(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12030196
Mamahit, J. A., Aloysius, D. C., & Suwono, H. (2020). Efektivitas Model Project-Based Learning Terintegrasi STEM (PjBL-STEM) terhadap Keterampilan Berpikir Kreatif Siswa Kelas X. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, Dan Pengembangan, 5(9), 1284. https://doi.org/10.17977/jptpp.v5i9.14034
Mao, H., Alizadeh, M., Menache, I., & Kandula, S. (2016). Resource Management with Deep Reinforcement Learning. Proceedings of the 15th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, 50–56. https://doi.org/10.1145/3005745.3005750
Margunayasa, I. G., Dantes, N., Marhaeni, A. A. I. N., & Suastra, I. W. (2019). The Effect of Guided Inquiry Learning and Cognitive Style on Science Learning Achievement. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 737–750. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12147a
Miftakhurrohmah, N. L., Masykuri, M., Ariyani, S. R. D. A., & Noris, M. N. (2023). The Effect of Guided Inquiry-Based Excretion System E-Module to Improve Critical Thinking and ICT Literacy Skills for Students. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 9(2), 681–689. https://doi.org/10.29303/jppipa.v9i2.2036
Milanto, S., Suprapto, N., & Budiyanto, M. (2023). Effectiveness of Contextual Learning Using the Guided Inquiry Approach to Improve Students’ Scientific Literacy Ability. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 9(1), 444–448. https://doi.org/10.29303/jppipa.v9i1.2785
Moye, J. J., Dugger, William E., J., & Starkweather, K. N. (2014). Is" learning by doing" Important? A Study of Doing-Based Learning. Technology and Engineering Teacher, 74(3), 22.
Nasir, M., Harjono, A., & Sridana, N. (2015). Pengaruh Pembelajaran Menggunakkan LKS Inkuiri Terintegrasi Generik Sains (ITGS) terhadap Hasil Belajar Fisika ditinjau dari Motivasi Berprestasi Siswa di SMA 1 Aikmel. 1(1), 78–90.
Nisyah, M., Gunawan, G., Harjono, A., & Kusdiastuti, M. (2020). Inquiry learning model with advance organizers to improve students’ understanding on physics concepts. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1521(2). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1521/2/022057
Nyoni, J. (2022). Flexibility and Agility in Pedagogical Contingency Planning Design in Open, Distance and E-Learning. Perspectives in Education, 40(3), 146–162. https://doi.org/10.18820/2519593X/pie.v40.i3.10
O’Shea, J., & Leavy, A. M. (2013). Teaching Mathematical Problem-Solving from an Emergent Constructivist Perspective: The Experiences of Irish Primary Teachers. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 16, 293–318. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10857-013-9235-6
Pečiuliauskienė, P., & Kaminskienė, L. (2022). Lithuanian Science Teachers’ Self-Confidence in Teaching and Their Innovative Work Activities. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 19(2), 577–593. https://doi.org/10.36681/tused.2022.138
Pedaste, M., Mäeots, M., Siiman, L. A., De Jong, T., Van Riesen, S. A. N., Kamp, E. T., Manoli, C. C., Zacharia, Z. C., & Tsourlidaki, E. (2015). Phases of Inquiry-Based Learning: Definitions and the Inquiry Cycle. Educational Research Review, 14, 47–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2015.02.003
Pérez-Álvarez, L., Ruiz-Rubio, L., & Vilas-Vilela, J. L. (2018). Determining the Deacetylation Degree of Chitosan: Opportunities to Learn Instrumental Techniques. Journal of Chemical Education, 95(6), 1022–1028.
Permata, S. A. I., Sunarno, W., & Harlita, H. (2022). Effect of the Problem Based Learning and Double Loop Problem Solving Learning Models on Problem Solving Ability in Term of Creative Thinking on Environmental Pollution Material. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 8(6), 2647–2653. https://doi.org/10.29303/jppipa.v8i6.1996
Pitkänen, K., Iwata, M., & Laru, J. (2020). Exploring Technology-Oriented Fab Lab Facilitators’ Role as Educators in K-12 Education: Focus on Scaffolding Novice Students’ Learning in Digital Fabrication Activities. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 26, 100207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcci.2020.100207
Pujani, N. M. (2022). The Effectiveness of the Inquiry Learning Model on Basic Science Learning Materials on Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Skills. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran, 55, 173–181.
Rahman Ahmad, A., A/P Govinda Raj Segaran, V., & Rizad Md Sapry, H. (2020). Academic Staff and Industry Revolution 4.0: Knowledge, Innovation and Learning Factor. Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, 7(2), 190–194. https://doi.org/10.20448/journal.509.2020.72.190.194
Sahyar, & Nst, F. H. (2017). The Effect of Scientific Inquiry Learning Model Based on Conceptual Change on Physics Cognitive Competence and Science Process Skill (SPS) of Students at Senior High School. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(5), 120–126. https://doi.org/10.9790/7388-0704012937
Sanggara, P. W., Doyan, A., & Verawati, N. N. S. P. (2018). the Effect of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Model Based on Virtual Laboraory Toward Problem Solving Abilities of Physics Student. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 5(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.29303/jppipa.v5i1.154
Sapriyadin, D., Sutopo, & Wisodo, H. (2023). Influence of Inquiry Learning on Concept Mastery Ability and Physics Problem Solving Ability of Students on Work and Energy Material. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 9(2), 734–744. https://doi.org/10.29303/jppipa.v9i2.3253
Scherer, R., & Beckmann, J. F. (2014). The acquisition of problem solving competence: evidence from 41 countries that math and science education matters. Large-Scale Assessments in Education, 2(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40536-014-0010-7
Shelton, A., Lemons, C. J., & Wexler, J. (2021). Supporting Main Idea Identification and Text Summarization in Middle School Co-Taught Classes. Intervention in School and Clinic, 56(4), 217–223. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053451220944380
Steger, F., & Kizilhan, J. I. (2022). Usable and Useful Help in Literature Database Search? A Pedagogical Implementation and the Evaluation of an Interactive Screencast for Iraqi University Students. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 27(3), 993–1020.
Stupple, E. J. N., Maratos, F. A., Elander, J., Hunt, T. E., Cheung, K. Y. F., & Aubeeluck, A. V. (2017). Development of the Critical Thinking Toolkit (CriTT): A measure of student attitudes and beliefs about critical thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 91–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2016.11.007
Tösten, R., Han, B., & Anik, S. (2017). The Impact of Parental Attitudes on Problem Solving Skills in High School Students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 170–174. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2017.050121
Ulfa, M., Yusrizal, Y., Huda, I., & Ilyas, S. (2022). The Influence of Guided Inquiry Learning Model with Radical Constructivism on Students’ Critical Thinking. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 8(1), 109–113. https://doi.org/10.29303/jppipa.v8i1.906
Uludağ, G., & Erkan, N. S. (2023). Evaluation of Parents’ Views on An Early Childhood Science Program Including Activities in Out-of-School Learning Environments. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 14(1), 1965–1989. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.23.or085
Valentim, N. M. C., Silva, W., & Conte, T. (2017). The Students’ Perspectives on Applying Design Thinking for the Design of Mobile Applications. 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering Education and Training Track (ICSE-SEET), 77–86. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSE-SEET.2017.10
Van Laar, E., Van Deursen, A. J. A. M., Van Dijk, J. A. G. M., & De Haan, J. (2017). The Relation Between 21st-Century Skills and Digital Skills: A Systematic Literature Review. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 577–588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.010
Walker, F., Link, N., & Nickolaus, R. (2016). A multidimensional structure of domain-specific problem-solving competencies of electronics technicians for automation technology. Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/S40461-016-0034-Z
Wola, B. R., Rungkat, J. A., & Harindah, G. M. D. (2023). Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers’ in Practicum Activity at the Laboratory. Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan IPA, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.21831/jipi.v9i1.52974
Yulindar, A., Setiawan, A., & Liliawati, W. (2018). Enhancement of problem solving ability of high school students through learning with real engagement in active problem solving (REAPS) model on the concept of heat transfer. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1013(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1013/1/012052
Copyright (c) 2023 Femmy Roosje Kawuwung, Jimmi Andrew Mamahit
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY License). This license allows authors to use all articles, data sets, graphics, and appendices in data mining applications, search engines, web sites, blogs, and other platforms by providing an appropriate reference. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).