Application of Project-Based Learning and Discovery Learning in Virtual Media on Analytical Thinking Skills for Animal Classification







Vol. 10 No. 6 (2024): June


Analytical thinking, Animal classification, Cladogram, Discovery learning, Virtual media

Research Articles


How to Cite

Puti, T. N., Karyanto, P., & Fatmawati, U. (2024). Application of Project-Based Learning and Discovery Learning in Virtual Media on Analytical Thinking Skills for Animal Classification. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 10(6), 3083–3091.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


This study aims to determine the characteristics of project-based learning and discovery learning virtual media on animal classification material and test the effectiveness of project-based virtual media discovery learning on animal classification material on analytical thinking skills. This research is a mixed type of research. The research design used is the exploratory sequential design, using qualitative data analysis as the initial stage and then used as a direction to determine the formulation of research problems, samples, and quantitative data collection methods, followed by the development of virtual media instruments based on project-based learning and discovery learning. Quantitative methods are applied using quasi-experimental research. The study design used a nonrandomized control group and a pretest-posttest design. The treatment class uses PjBL-based virtual media Iimplementation, the control class uses a virtual media discovery model-based. The test instrument used is an essay question to measure analytical thinking skills adapted from Brookhart. Data analysis using ANCOVA (p = 0.05%) with prates as covariates. The result of the differences in the characteristics of project-based learning and discovery learning virtual media lies in the syntax of learning models, virtual activities, work produced, and attitudes developed. The feasibility test results of both virtual media were declared suitable for use. The results of ANCOVA showed that project-based virtual media learning is more effective in improving analytical thinking skills than discovery-based virtual media learning.


Al Aliyawinata, T. T., Utari, E., & Mahrawi, M. (2021). The Effect of Discovery Learning on Students’ Higher-order Thinking Skills. International Journal of Biology Education Towards Sustainable Development, 1(1), 1–9.

Alawi, N. H., & Soh, T. M. T. (2019). The Effect of Project-Based Learning (PjBL) on Critical Thinking Skills Form Four Students on Dynamic Ecosystem Topic “Vector! Oh! Vector!” Creative Education, 10(12), 3107–3117.

Almulla, M. A. (2020). The Effectiveness of the Project-Based Learning (PBL) Approach as a Way to Engage Students in Learning. SAGE Open, 10(3), 215824402093870.

Anggraini, N. P., Budiyono, & Pratiwi, H. (2019). Analysis of higher order thinking skills students at junior high school in Surakarta. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1211(1).

Arifin, Y., Wibowo, R. P., & Praditiya, O. (2019). Taxondroid: Design Interactive Application for Animal Taxonomy Learning Using Teen-Computer Interaction Approach. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Education (TALE), 1–7.

Baten, C. E. (1918). Your Classroom. Journal of Education, 88(18), 495–496.

Bingham, A. J. (2023). From Data Management to Actionable Findings: A Five-Phase Process of Qualitative Data Analysis. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 22.

Bond, J. E., Godwin, R. L., Colby, J. D., Newton, L. G., Zahnle, X. J., Agnarsson, I., Hamilton, C. A., & Kuntner, M. (2021). Improving Taxonomic Practices and Enhancing Its Extensibility—An Example from Araneology. Diversity, 14(1), 5.

Brahler, C. J., Quitadamo, I. J., & Johnson, E. C. (2002). Student Critical Thinking is Enhanced by Developing Exercise Prescriptions Using Online Learning Modules. Advances in Physiology Education, 26(3), 210–221.

Brookhart, S. M. (2010). How to Assess Higher-Order Thinking Skills in your Clasroom. ASCD Member Book.

Busetto, L., Wick, W., & Gumbinger, C. (2020). How to use and assess qualitative research methods. Neurological Research and Practice, 2(1), 14.

Chigbu, U. (2019). Visually Hypothesising in Scientific Paper Writing: Confirming and Refuting Qualitative Research Hypotheses Using Diagrams. Publications, 7(1), 22.

Darling-Hammond, L., Flook, L., Cook-Harvey, C., Barron, B., & Osher, D. (2020). Implications for educational practice of the science of learning and development. Applied Developmental Science, 24(2), 97–140.

Diana, N., & Sukma, Y. (2021). The effectiveness of implementing project-based learning (PjBL) model in STEM education: A literature review. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1882(1), 012146.

Dwivedi, Y. K., Kshetri, N., Hughes, L., Slade, E. L., Jeyaraj, A., Kar, A. K., Baabdullah, A. M., Koohang, A., Raghavan, V., Ahuja, M., Albanna, H., Albashrawi, M. A., Al-Busaidi, A. S., Balakrishnan, J., Barlette, Y., Basu, S., Bose, I., Brooks, L., Buhalis, D., … Wright, R. (2023). Opinion Paper: “So what if ChatGPT wrote it?” Multidisciplinary perspectives on opportunities, challenges and implications of generative conversational AI for research, practice and policy. International Journal of Information Management, 71, 102642.

Essien, A., Bukoye, O. T., O’Dea, X., & Kremantzis, M. (2024). The influence of AI text generators on critical thinking skills in UK business schools. Studies in Higher Education, 49(5), 865–882.

Gee, N. R., Griffin, J. A., & McCardle, P. (2017). Human–Animal Interaction Research in School Settings: Current Knowledge and Future Directions. AERA Open, 3(3), 233285841772434.

Grand-Guillaume-Perrenoud, J. A., Geese, F., Uhlmann, K., Blasimann, A., Wagner, F. L., Neubauer, F. B., Huwendiek, S., Hahn, S., & Schmitt, K.-U. (2023). Mixed methods instrument validation: Evaluation procedures for practitioners developed from the validation of the Swiss Instrument for Evaluating Interprofessional Collaboration. BMC Health Services Research, 23(1), 83.

Ismailov, M. (2021). Virtual exchanges in an inquiry-based learning environment: Effects on intra-cultural awareness and intercultural communicative competence. Cogent Education, 8(1), 1982601.

Kwangmuang, P., Jarutkamolpong, S., Sangboonraung, W., & Daungtod, S. (2021). The development of learning innovation to enhance higher order thinking skills for students in Thailand junior high schools. Heliyon, 7(6), e07309.

Labadze, L., Grigolia, M., & Machaidze, L. (2023). Role of AI chatbots in education: systematic literature review. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 20(1), 56.

Li, M.-M., & Tu, C.-C. (2024). Developing a Project-Based Learning Course Model Combined with the Think–Pair–Share Strategy to Enhance Creative Thinking Skills in Education Students. Education Sciences, 14(3), 233.

Mahmud, M. S., & Mohd Drus, N. F. (2023). The use of oral questioning to improve students’ reasoning skills in primary school mathematics learning. Frontiers in Education, 8, 1126816.

Naveed, A., Zhuparova, A., Ashfaq, M., & Rauf, A. (2023). The effect of average scores in reading, mathematics and science on innovation and income: A quantitative analysis for a group of countries. Heliyon, 9(9), e19213.

Nowell, L. S., Norris, J. M., White, D. E., & Moules, N. J. (2017). Thematic Analysis: Striving to Meet the Trustworthiness Criteria. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16(1), 160940691773384.

O’Reilly, C., Devitt, A., & Hayes, N. (2022). Critical thinking in the preschool classroom - A systematic literature review. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 46, 101110.

Pande, M., & Bharathi, S. V. (2020). Theoretical foundations of design thinking – A constructivism learning approach to design thinking. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 36, 100637.

Pedaste, M., Mäeots, M., Siiman, L. A., De Jong, T., Van Riesen, S. A. N., Kamp, E. T., Manoli, C. C., Zacharia, Z. C., & Tsourlidaki, E. (2015). Phases of inquiry-based learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle. Educational Research Review, 14, 47–61.

Rahayu, Y. A. D., Widoretno, S., Dwiastuti, S., & Rinanto, Y. (2019). Instructional technique questions in the evaluating stage of project based learning to improve concept map score. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1241(1), 012044.

Rehman, N., Zhang, W., Mahmood, A., Fareed, M. Z., & Batool, S. (2023). Fostering twenty-first century skills among primary school students through math project-based learning. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 10(1), 424.

Rusdin, D., Mukminatien, N., Suryati, N., & Laksmi, E. D. (2024). Critical thinking in the AI era: An exploration of EFL students’ perceptions, benefits, and limitations. Cogent Education, 11(1), 2290342.

Scossa, F., & Fernie, A. R. (2020). The evolution of metabolism: How to test evolutionary hypotheses at the genomic level. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 18, 482–500.

Singh, J., Steele, K., & Singh, L. (2021). Combining the Best of Online and Face-to-Face Learning: Hybrid and Blended Learning Approach for COVID-19, Post Vaccine, & Post-Pandemic World. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 50(2), 140–171.

Sudarsono, B., Tentama, F., Mulasari, S. A., Sukesi, T. W., Sulistyawati, S., Ghozali, F. A., Yuliansyah, H., Nafiati, L., & Sofyan, H. (2022). Development of Integrated Project-based (PjBL-T) model to improve work readiness of vocational high school students. Jurnal Pendidikan Vokasi, 12(3), 222–235.

Tan, A. J. Y., Davies, J. L., Nicolson, R. I., & Karaminis, T. (2023). Learning critical thinking skills online: can precision teaching help? Educational Technology Research and Development, 71(3), 1275–1296.

Tong, D. H., Uyen, B. P., & Ngan, L. K. (2022). The effectiveness of blended learning on students’ academic achievement, self-study skills and learning attitudes: A quasi-experiment study in teaching the conventions for coordinates in the plane. Heliyon, 8(12), e12657.

Valletta, J. J., Torney, C., Kings, M., Thornton, A., & Madden, J. (2017). Applications of machine learning in animal behaviour studies. Animal Behaviour, 124, 203–220.

Widodo, A., & Utomo, A. B. (2021). Media Pembelajaran Taksonomi Hewan Berbasis Augmented Reality dengan Fitur Multi Target. Edu Komputika Journal, 8(1), 1–8.

Willi, M., Pitman, R. T., Cardoso, A. W., Locke, C., Swanson, A., Boyer, A., Veldthuis, M., & Fortson, L. (2019). Identifying animal species in camera trap images using deep learning and citizen science. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 10(1), 80–91.

Zamiri, M., & Esmaeili, A. (2024). Methods and Technologies for Supporting Knowledge Sharing within Learning Communities: A Systematic Literature Review. Administrative Sciences, 14(1), 17.

Author Biographies

Tunjung Nala Puti, Universitas Sebelas Maret

Puguh Karyanto, Universitas Sebelas Maret

Umi Fatmawati, Universitas Sebelas Maret


Copyright (c) 2024 Tunjung Nala Puti, Puguh Karyanto, Umi Fatmawati

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY License). This license allows authors to use all articles, data sets, graphics, and appendices in data mining applications, search engines, web sites, blogs, and other platforms by providing an appropriate reference. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions.
  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA.
  3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).