Profile of Scientific Explanation of High School Students on Human Circulatory System Material







Vol. 10 No. 6 (2024): June


Scientific Explanation, Claim, Evidence, Reasoning, Human Circulatory System, Biology, Science

Research Articles


How to Cite

Widiana, L. V. W., Prayitno, B. A., & Sugiharto, B. (2024). Profile of Scientific Explanation of High School Students on Human Circulatory System Material . Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 10(6), 3108–3113.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


This study aims to determine the profile of scientific explanation ability of high school students, especially on the material of the human circulatory system. The type of research used is quantitative research with survey methods shared through google forms. The subjects of the study were high school students who had received human circulation system material in one of several schools in Central Java, the research sample was selected through random sampling techniques from the population.  The research instrument used was adapted from McNeill, Lizotte, Krajcik, and Marx (2016) which consisted of 9 long answer questions to be able to determine the success of aspects of claim, evidence, and reasoning in scientific explanation. The instrument has been declared valid and reliable through Rasch Model testing. The research data is in the form of scores from student answers which are then processed through the Rasch Model to determine the level of difficulty and wright map person (students) to find out the profile of each student's scientific explanation ability. The results showed that 78% of students were still at the lower middle level in compiling the three aspects of scientific explanation, and only 12% of students were able to achieve maximum scores in the preparation of claims, evidence, and reasoning.


Çilekrenkli, A., & Kaya, E. (2023). Learning science in context: Integrating a holistic approach to nature of science in the lower secondary classroom. Science & Education, 32(5), 1435-1469.

Colaço, D. (2020). Recharacterizing scientific phenomena. European Journal for Philosophy of Science, 10, 1–19. Retrieved from

Cordier, R., Speyer, R., Schindler, A., Michou, E., Heijnen, B. J., Baijens, L., ... & Joosten, A. V. (2018). Using Rasch analysis to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire: an item response theory approach. Dysphagia, 33, 441-456.

Dilek, H., Taşdemir, A., Konca, A. S., & Baltacı, S. (2020). Preschool children’s science motivation and process skills during inquiry-based STEM activities. Journal of Education in Science Environment and Health, 6(2), 92-104.

Duncan, R. G., Chinn, C. A., & Barzilai, S. (2018). Grasp of evidence: Problematizing and expanding the next generation science standards’ conceptualization of evidence. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(7), 907–937.

Elfeky, A. I. M., Masadeh, T. S. Y., & Elbyaly, M. Y. H. (2020). Advance organizers in flipped classroom via e-learning management system and the promotion of integrated science process skills. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 35, 100622.

Gizaw, G., & Sota, S. (2023). Improving science process skills of students: A review of literature. Science Education International, 34(3), 216-224.

Howell, R. A. (2021). Engaging students in education for sustainable development: The benefits of active learning, reflective practices and flipped classroom pedagogies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 325, 129318.

Keen, C., & Sevian, H. (2022). Qualifying domains of student struggle in undergraduate general chemistry laboratory. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 23(1), 12-37.

Kennedy, I. (2022). Sample size determination in test-retest and Cronbach alpha reliability estimates. British Journal of Contemporary Education, 2(1), 17-29.

Kurniawan, D. A., Wirayuda, R. P., Putri, W. A., Rini, E. F. S., Ginting, B., Aktapianti, A., & Ratnawati, T. (2023). Impact of Science Process Skills on Thinking Skills in Rural and Urban Schools. International Journal of Instruction, 16(2).

Laksmi, M. L., Sari, D. P., Rinanto, Y., & Sapartini, R. R. (2021). Implementation of Problem Based Learning to Increase Scientific Explanation Skill in Biology Learning about the Environment. Journal of Learning for Development, 8(3), 532–540.

Lestari, S. P. C., Supeno, & Wicaksono, I. (2021). Pengaruh Penggunaan Comic Life Terhadap Kemampuan Scientific Explanation Dan Hasil Belajar IPA. Musamus, 3(2), 50–60.

Mc. Neill, K. L., & Krajcik, J. (2011). Suporting Grade 5 – 8 Students in Constructing Ecplanation in Science. Pearson.

McLure, F. (2023). The thinking frames approach: Improving high school students’ written explanations of phenomena in science. Research in Science Education, 53(1), 173-191.

McNeill, K. L., & Krajcik, J. (2009). Synergy Between Teacher Practices and Curricular Scaffolds to Support Students in Using Domain-Specific and Domain-General Knowledge in Writing Arguments to Explain Phenomena. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 18(3), 416–460.

Nasir, M., & Nur, M. (2018). Training Inquiry Model Ditinjau dari Kemampuan Scientific Explanation Mahasiswa. Bioedukasi (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi), 9(1), 51–56.

Nasir, M., Sunarno, W., & Rahmawati, F. (2022). Flipped classroom using e-module to improve understanding of light concepts: needs analysis of e-module development to empower scientific explanation. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2165(1), 12040.

Ndlovu, T. N., & Mhlongo, S. (2020). An investigation into the effects of gamification on students’ situational interest in a learning environment. In 2020 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON) (pp. 1187-1192). IEEE.

OECD. (2019). Programme for international student assessment (PISA) results from PISA 2018. Oecd, 1–10. Retrieved from

Osborne, J. F., & Patterson, A. (2011). Scientific argument and explanation: A necessary distinction? Science Education, 95(4), 627–638.

Qomariyah, S., Darmayanti, R., Rosyidah, U., & Ayuwanti, I. (2023). Indicators and essay problem grids on three-dimensional material: Development of instruments for measuring high school students' mathematical problem-solving ability. JEMS: Jurnal Edukasi Matematika Dan Sains, 11(1), 261-274.

Rini, E. F. S., & Aldila, F. T. (2023). Practicum activity: analysis of science process skills and students' critical thinking skills. Integrated Science Education Journal, 4(2), 54-61.

Rohwer, Y., & Rice, C. (2015). How are Models and Explanations Related? Erkenntnis, 81(5), 1127–1148.

Saraswati, Y., Indana, S., & Sudibyo, E. (2021). Science literacy profile of junior high school students based on knowledge, competence, cognitive, and context aspects. IJORER: International Journal of Recent Educational Research, 2(3), 329-341.

Stadermann, H. K. E. (2022). Connecting secondary school quantum physics and nature of science: Possibilities and challenges in curriculum design, teaching, and learning.

Stevanović, A., Božić, R., & Radović, S. (2021). Higher education students’ experiences and opinion about distance learning during the Covid‐19 pandemic. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 37(6), 1682–1693.

Taber, K. S. (2018). The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in science education, 48, 1273-1296.

Utari, G. P., Liliawati, W., & Utama, J. A. (2021). Design and validation of six-tier astronomy diagnostic test instruments with Rasch Model analysis. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1806, No. 1, p. 012028). IOP Publishing.

Utina, R., Laliyo, L. A., & Husain, R. I. (2023). Measuring student skills in explaining socio-scientific chemical phenomena using rasch model. International Journal of Science and Research Archive, 9(2), 488-495.

Wijayanto, T., Singgih Bektiarso, dan, Studi Pendidikan Fisika, P., Pendidikan MIPA, J., Jember Jl Kalimantan No, U., Timur, K., Sumbersari, K., & Jember -Jawa Timur, K. (2020). Pengaruh Model Inkuiri Terstruktur terhadap Kemampuan Scientific Explanation Siswa dalam Pembelajaran Fisika di SMA. In Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Tadulako Online (JPFT) (Vol. 8, Issue 2).

Author Biographies

Lilya Vany Wisma Widiana, Sebelas Maret University

Baskoro Adi Prayitno, Sebelas Maret University

Bowo Sugiharto, Sebelas Maret University


Copyright (c) 2024 Lilya Vany Wisma Widiana, Baskoro Adi Prayitno, Bowo Sugiharto

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY License). This license allows authors to use all articles, data sets, graphics, and appendices in data mining applications, search engines, web sites, blogs, and other platforms by providing an appropriate reference. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions.
  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA.
  3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).