Soap Making Project from Waste Cooking Oil for High School Students’ Chemistry Learning: Qualitative Content Analysis


Desrika Putri , Asep Supriatna , Triannisa Rahmawati






Vol. 10 No. 6 (2024): June


Chemistry Learning, Content Analysis, Kurikulum Merdeka, Teaching-Learning Sequences (TLS), Waste Cooking Oil, Qualitative Content Analysis

Research Articles


How to Cite

Putri, D., Supriatna, A., & Rahmawati, T. (2024). Soap Making Project from Waste Cooking Oil for High School Students’ Chemistry Learning: Qualitative Content Analysis . Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 10(6), 3147–3154.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) is one of hazardous waste causes serious issues, including environmental and health issues. WCO can be utilized in several bioproducts to reduce the potential of its problems. The purpose of this study is to create teaching-learning sequences from the context of utilization of waste cooking oil into soap. The teaching-learning sequences can be used as a basis to construct lesson design or teaching materials with project-based learning model. This is in line with curriculum in Indonesia known as “Kurikulum Merdeka” for a program called “Projek Penguatan Profil Pelajar Pancasila (P5)”. This research used Qualitative Content Analysis as a method with four stages including material collection, descriptive analysis, category selection, and material evaluation. Data were collected through fourteen literatures analysis and expert validation. Validation experts are from an experienced chemistry teacher and two lecturers from chemistry education field. Validation results the teaching-learning sequences’ is suitable for use for learning activity in terms of content. The result of this study is a teaching-learning sequences which divided into four sections including: (A) The Phenomenon of Waste Cooking Oil, (B) The Composition of Waste Cooking Oil and The Utilization of Waste Cooking Oil, (C) The Soap Making Process with WCO, and (D) The Benefit of WCO Utilization into Soap.


Abera, B. H., Diro, A., & Beyene, T. T. (2023). The synergistic effect of waste cooking oil and endod (Phytolacca dodecandra) on the production of high-grade laundry soap. Heliyon, 9(6).

Aniokete, T. C., Ozonoh, M., & Daramola, M. O. (2019). Synthesis of pure and high surface area sodalite catalyst from waste industrial brine and coal fly ash for conversion of waste cooking oil (WCO) to biodiesel. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, 9(4).

Arlofa, N., Budi, B. S., Abdillah, M., & Firmansyah, W. (2021). Pembuatan Sabun Mandi Padat dari Minyak Jelantah. Jurnal Chemtech, 7(1).

Asli, H., Ahmadinia, E., Zargar, M., & Karim, M. R. (2012). Investigation on physical properties of waste cooking oil - Rejuvenated bitumen binder. Construction and Building Materials, 37.

Awogbemi, O., Kallon, D. V. Von, Aigbodion, V. S., & Panda, S. (2021). Advances in biotechnological applications of waste cooking oil. Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering, 4.

Azme, S. N. K., Yusoff, N. S. I. M., Chin, L. Y., Mohd, Y., Hamid, R. D., Jalil, M. N., Zaki, H. M., Saleh, S. H., Ahmat, N., Manan, M. A. F. A., Yury, N., Hum, N. N. F., Latif, F. A., & Zain, Z. M. (2023). Recycling waste cooking oil into soap: Knowledge transfer through community service learning. Cleaner Waste Systems, 4.

Félix, S., Araújo, J., Pires, A. M., & Sousa, A. C. (2017). Soap production: A green prospective. Waste Management, 66.

Fitri Hadiah, Meliasari, T., & Heryanto. (2020). Pemurnian minyak jelantah dengan menggunakan adsorben serbuk biji kelor tanpa karbonisasi dan bentonit. Jurnal Teknik Kimia, 26(1).

Foo, W. H., Chia, W. Y., Tang, D. Y. Y., Koay, S. S. N., Lim, S. S., & Chew, K. W. (2021). The conundrum of waste cooking oil: Transforming hazard into energy. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 417.

Fourniyati, I. R., Nuswowati, M., & Cahyono, E. (2020). The Effects of Projects Based Chemistry Learning Model, Assisted by Chemsong Video to Students’s Learning Completeness and Creativity. Journal of Innovative Science Education, 9(3).

Guisasola, J., Zuza, K., Ametller, J., & Gutierrez-Berraondo, J. (2017). Evaluating and redesigning teaching learning sequences at the introductory physics level. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 13(2).

Guo, P., Saab, N., Post, L. S., & Admiraal, W. (2020). A review of project-based learning in higher education: Student outcomes and measures. International Journal of Educational Research, 102.

Hartini, S., Fiantika, Y., Widharto, Y., & Hisjam, M. (2021). Optimal treatment combination for dishwashing liquid soap based on waste cooking oil according to the requirement of indonesian quality standards. Evergreen, 8(2), 492–498.

Ijirana, Aminah, S., Supriadi, & Magfirah. (2022). Critical Thinking Skills Of Chemistry Education Students In Team Project-Based Stem-Metacognitive Skills Learning During The Covid-19 Pandemic. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 12(2).

Kemendikbudristek. (2021). Panduan Pengembangan Projek Penguatan Profil Pelajar Pancasila. Pusat Asesment dan Pembelajaran, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan dan Perbukuan, Kementrian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi Republik Indonesia.

Kristiana, T., Baldino, C., & Searle, S. (2022). An estimate of current collection and potential collection of used cooking oil from major Asian exporting countries. International Council on Clean Transportation, 2022(February).

Li, W., Guan, R., Yuan, X., Wang, H., Zheng, S., Liu, L., & Chen, X. (2020). Product Soap from Waste Cooking Oil. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 510(4).

Mahmudah, R., & Shofiah, N. (2023). From waste to wealth: A novel approach for empowering society through recycling used cooking oil into soap. Journal of Community Service and Empowerment, 4(2).

Mannu, A., Garroni, S., Porras, J. I., & Mele, A. (2020). Available technologies and materials for waste cooking oil recycling. In Processes (Vol. 8, Issue 3).

Mannu, A., Vlahopoulou, G., Urgeghe, P., Ferro, M., Del Caro, A., Taras, A., Garroni, S., Rourke, J. P., Cabizza, R., & Petretto, G. L. (2019). Variation of the chemical composition ofwaste cooking oils upon bentonite filtration. Resources, 8(2).

Maotsela, T., Danha, G., & Muzenda, E. (2019). Utilization of waste cooking oil and tallow for production of toilet “bath” soap. Procedia Manufacturing, 35.

Masbukhin, F. A. A. M., Sandra Sukmaning Adji, & Ayu Fahimah Diniyah Wathi. (2023). Project-Based Learning (PjBL) Model in Chemistry Learning: Students’ Perceptions. European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 4(1).

Mayring, P. (2000). Qualitative Content Analysis.

Mustakim, M., Taufik, R., & Trismawati, T. (2020). The Utilization of Waste Cooking Oil As a Material of Soap. Journal of Development Research, 4(2), 86–91.

Psillos D, & Kariotoglou P. (2016). Iterative Design of Teaching-Learning Sequences Introducing the Science of Materials in European Schools.

Rahayu, S., Pambudi, K. A., Afifah, A., Fitriani, S. R., Tasyari, S., Zaki, M., & Djamahar, R. (2021). Environmentally safe technology with the conversion of used cooking oil into soap. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1869(1).

Rasman, M., Hassan, N. A., Hainin, M. R., Putra Jaya, R., Haryati, Y., Shukry, N. A. M., Abdullah, M. E., & Kamaruddin, N. H. M. (2018). Engineering properties of bitumen modified with bio-oil. MATEC Web of Conferences, 250.

Situmorang, M., Sinaga, M., Sitorus, M., & Sudrajat, A. (2022). Implementation of Project-based Learning Innovation to Develop Students’ Critical Thinking Skills as a Strategy to Achieve Analytical Chemistry Competencies. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 56(1).

Sumarni, W., & Kadarwati, S. (2020). Ethno-stem project-based learning: Its impact to critical and creative thinking skills. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(1).

Walelu Mwamba, B., Sarpong Brobbey, M., Leodolff, B., Peters, S., Mbella Teke, G., & Mapholi, Z. (2024). Techno-economic evaluation of soap production from waste cooking oil with additives derived from citrus peel waste.

Author Biographies

Desrika Putri, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Asep Supriatna, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Triannisa Rahmawati, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia


Copyright (c) 2024 Desrika Putri, Asep Supriatna, Triannisa Rahmawati

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY License). This license allows authors to use all articles, data sets, graphics, and appendices in data mining applications, search engines, web sites, blogs, and other platforms by providing an appropriate reference. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions.
  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA.
  3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).