The Honey Quality of Apis mellifera with Extrafloral Nectar in Lombok West Nusa Tenggara Indonesia

Erwan Erwan, Muhammad Harun, Muhammad Muhsinin


The purpose of the present study was to analyze Apis mellifera honey's quality given extrafloral nectar feed from Arenga pinnata sap and Cocus nucifera sap as stimulatory nutrition. The chemical compositions of honey, such as reducing sugar content, sucrose content, the acidity of honey, moisture content, and diastase enzyme activity, were measured. The comparison between A. mellifera honey's chemical compositions on Arenga pinnata sap and Cocus nucifera sap ware was analyzed using the student t-test (GraphPad Instant Statistical Program). The result from the analysis of reducing sugar content showed that the A. mellifera honey from Cocus nucifera sap (73.69± 0.21%) had a higher (P<0.05) than the Arenga pinnata sap (60.15±2.13%). The significant differences (P<0.05) in the acidity of A. mellifera honey from Arenga pinnata sap (43.00±7.48) compared with Cocus nucifera sap (22.00±2.14). The sucrose content, moisture content, and diastase enzyme activity were not significant differences between the A. mellifera honey from Arenga pinnata sap compared with the A. mellifera honey from Cocus nucifera sap. In conclusion, the chemical compositions of A. mellifera honey with extrafloral nectar (Arenga pinnata sap and Cocus nucifera sap) are good quality and indicate that the honey falls under the limits of international standards. The A. mellifera honey from Cocus nucifera sap has a higher sugar reduction content and lower acidity than the A. mellifera honey from Arenga pinnata sap


Apis mellifera; extrafloral nectar; honey quality; chemical compositions of honey

Full Text:



Alvarez-Suarez, J.M., Tulipani, S., Díaz, D., Estevez, Y., Romandini, S., Giampier,i F., Damiani, E., Astolfi, P., Bompadre, S., & Battino, M. 2010. Antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of several monofloral Cuban honeys and their correlation with color, polyphenol content, and other chemical compounds. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48 (8-9): 2490-2499. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.06.021

Gheldof, N., Wang, X.H., & Engeseth, N.J. 2002. Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources. J. Agric. Food. Chemistry. 50 (21): 5870–5877. doi: 10.1021/jf0256135

Alvarez-Suarez, J.M, Gasparrini, M, Forbes-Hernández, T.Y, Mazzoni, L., & Giampieri, F. 2014. The Composition and Biological Activity of Honey: A Focus on Manuka Honey. Foods. 3 (3): 420-432. doi: 10.3390/foods3030420

Calderone, N.W. 2012. Insect pollinated crops, insect pollinators and US agriculture: trend analysis of aggregate data for the period 1992-2009. PLoS One. 7 (5): e37235. doi:

Biesaga, M., & Pyrzynska, K. 2009. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry studies of the phenolic compounds in honey. J. Chromatogr. A. 1216 (38): 6620-6626. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2009.07.066

Feas, X., Vazquez-Tato, M.P., Estevinho, L., Seijas, J.A., & Iglesias, A. 2012. Organic bee pollen: botanical origin, nutritional value, bioactive compaunds, antioxidant activity and microbiological quality. Molecules. 17 (7): 8359–8377. doi:

Więckiewicz, W., Miernik, M., Więckiewicz, M., & Morawiec, T. 2013. Does propolis help to maintain oral health?. Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013 (1): 1-8. doi: 10.1155/2013/351062

Terada, Y., Narukawa, M., & Watanabe, T. 2011. Specific hydroxy fatty acids in royal jelly activate TRPA1. J Agric. Food. Chem. 59 (6): 2627-2635. doi:

Iurlina, M.O., Saiz, AI., Fritz, R., & Manrique, G.D. 2009. Major flavonoids of Argentinean honeys. Optimisation of the extraction method and analysis of their content in relationship to the geographical source of honeys. Food. Chem. 115 (3): 1141–1149. doi:

Premratanachai, P., & Chanchao, C. 2014. Review of the anticancer activities of bee products. Asian Pac. J Trop. Biomed. 4 (5): 337-344. doi: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1262

Das, T.K., & Samajdar, T. 2013. Scientific method of honey production. Krishi vigyan kendra, Tura, India.

Barlina, R., Karouw, S., & Pasang P. 2006. Effect of fresh coconut husk on the quality of Arenga pinnata toddy and palm wine. J. Littri. 12 (4): 166-171. Doi: 10.21082/littri.v12n4.2006.%p

Supomo. 2007. Meningkatkan kesejahteraan pengrajin gula kelapa di Wilayah Kabupaten

Purbalingga. Econ. J. Emerg. Mark. 12 (2): 149-162 (Id). doi:

BPS. 2013. Portrait of West Nusa Tenggara agricultural business according to subsector. Badan Pusat Statistik, Mataram, Indonesia.

SNI. 2013. Madu, Standar Nasional Indonesia, SNI 3545:2013. Badan Standardisasi Nasional: Jakarta.

Codex Alimentarius. 2001. Revised codex standard for honey CODEX STAN 12-1981, Rev.1 (1987), Rev.2 (2001). Accessed 27 February 2018.

Kaškonienė, V., Venskutonisa, P.R., & Čeksterytėb, V. 2010. Carbohydrate composition and electrical conductivity of different origin honeys from Lithuania. LWT–Food. Sci Technol. 43 (5): 801-807. doi:

Bogdanov, S., Rouff, K. & Oddo, L.P. 2004. Physico-chemical methods for the characterization of unifloral honey: a review. Apidologie. 35 (4): 275-282. doi:

Zafar, A., Safdar, M., Siddiqui, N., Mumtaz, A., Hameed, T., & Sial, M.U. 2008. Chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of branded honey collected from Islamabad and Rawalpindi market. J Agric. Res. 21 (1): 86-91.

Tomomatsu, A., Itoh, T., Wijay,a C.H., Nasution, Z., Kumendong, J., & Matsuyam, A. 1996. Chemical Constituents of Sugar-Containing Sap and Brown Sugar from Palm in Indonesia. Jpn J. Trop Agr. 40 (4): 175-181.

Erwan. 2003. Pemanfaatan Nira Aren dan Nira Kelapa Serta Polen Aren Sebagai Pakan Lebah Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Madu Apis cerana. Ph.D. dissertation, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia.

Sihombing, D.T.H. 1997. Ilmu Ternak Lebah Madu. Gadjah Mada University Press: Yogyakarta.

Pourakbari, Y., Rezapour, A.K., & Ghorbani, A. 2011. Effect of Persimmon Sap Nutrition on Sugars of Honey in Colony of Apis mellifera. Middle East J Sci Res. 10 (6): 794-797.

Moniruzzaman, M., Khalil, M.I., Sulaiman, S.A., & Gan, S.H. 2013. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera. BMC. Complement. Altern. Med. 13 (1): 43-54.

Nweze, J.A., Okafor, J.I., Nweze, E.I., & Nweze, J.E. 2017. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of two stingless beehoneys: a comparison with Apis mellifera honey from Nsukka, Nigeria. BMC. Res. Notes. 10 (1): 566-572. doi: 10.1186/s13104-017-2884-2

Khalil, M.I., Moniruzzaman, M., Boukraâ, L., Benhanifia, M., Islam, M.A, Islam, M.N., Sulaiman, S.A., & Gan, S.H. 2012. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Honey. Molecules. 17 (9): 11199-11215. doi: 10.3390/molecules170911199

Kamal, M.A., & Klein, P. 2011. Determination of sugars in honey by liquid chromatography. Saudi. J Biol. Sci. 18 (1): 17–21. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2010.09.003

Rybak-Chmielewska, H., & Szczęsna, T. 2003. Determination of saccharides in multifloral honey by means of HPLC. J Apic. Sci. 47 (2): 93-101.

Buba, F., Gidado, A., & Shugaba, A. 2013. Analysis of biochemical composition of honey samples from North-East Nigeria. Biochem. Anal. Biochem. 2 (3): 1-7. doi: 10.4172/2161-1009.1000139

Cantarelli, M.A., Pellerano, R.G., Marchevsky, E.J., & Camina. 2008. Quality of honey from Argentina: study of chemical composition and trace elements. J. Argentine. Chem. Soc. 96 (1-2): 33-41.

Vit, P., Rodríguez-Malaver, A., Roubik, D.W., Moreno, E., Souza, B.A., Sancho, M.T., Fernández-Muiño, M., Almeida-Anacleto, D., Marchini, L.C., Gil. F., González, C., Aguilera, G., & Nieves, B. 2009. Expanded parameters to assess the quality of honey from Venezuelan bees (Apis mellifera). JAAS. 1 (3): 72-81.

White, J.W., & Doner, L.W. 1980. Honey composition and properties. Beekeeping in the United States Agriculture Handbook No. 335, Revised October 82–91.

Kowalski, S., Łukasiewicz, M., & Berski, W. 2013. Applicability of physico-chemical parameters of honey for identification of the botanical origin. Acta. Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment. 12 (1): 51-59.

Prica, N., Živkov-Baloš, M., Jakšić, S., Mihaljev, Z., Kartalović, B., Babić, J., & Savić, S. 2014. Moisture and acidity as indicators of the quality of honey originating from vojvodina region. Arh. Vet. Med. 7 (2): 99-109. doi:

Yadata. D. 2014. Detection of the Electrical Conductivity and Acidity of Honey from Different Areas of Tepi. Food Sci. Technol. 2 (5): 59-63. doi: 10.13189/fst.2014.020501

Shobham, K.K., Chitluri., & Nayar, J. 2017. Physico-Chemical Analysis of Some Commercial Honey Samples from Telangana. Indian J Nutri. 4 (1): 153-157.

Samarghandian, S., Farkhondeh, T., & Samini, F. 2017. Honey and Health: A Review of Recent Clinical Research. Pharmacognosy. Res. 9 (2): 121-127. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.204647

Olaitan, P.B., Adeleke, O.E., & Ola, I.O. 2007. Honey: a reservoir for microorganisms and an inhibitory agent for microbes. Afr. Health. Sci. 7 (3): 159-165.

Karimov, E., Xalilzad, Z., Hobbi, P., & Alekperov, J. 2014. Quality evaluation of honey from the different region of azerbaijan. J Food. Chem. Nutr. 2 (2): 71-79.

Gomes, S., Dias, L.G., Moreira, L.L., Rodrigues, P., & Estevinho, L. 2010. Physicochemical, microbiological and antimicrobial properties of commercial honeys from Portugal. Food. Chem. Toxicol. 48 (2): 544–548. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.11.029

Kücük, M., Kolayli, S., Karaoglu, S., Ulusoy, E., Baltaci, C., & Candan, F. 2007. Biological activities and chemical composition of three honeys of different types from Anatolia. Food Chem. 100 (2): 526–534. doi:

Marghitas, L.A., Dezmirean, D.S., Pocol, C.B., Ilea, M., Bobis, O., & Gergen, I. 2010. The development of a biochemical profile of acacia honey by identifying biochemical determinants of its quality. Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj. 38 (2): 84–90. doi: 10.15835/nbha3824780

Saxena, S., Gautam, S., & Sharma, A. 2010. Physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of some Indian honeys. Food Chem. 118 (2): 391–397. doi:

Singh, N., & Bath, P.K. (1997). Quality evaluation of different types of Indian honey. Food Chem. 58 (1–2): 129–133. doi:

Terrab, A., Gonzále, M., & González, A. 2003. Characterisation of Moroccan unifloral honeys using multivariate analysis. Eur. Food. Res. Technol. 218 (1): 88–95.

Assia, A., & Ali, L. 2015. Enzymes activities, hydroxymethylfurfural content, and pollen spectrum of some Algerian honey. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 10 (7): 613-622. doi: 9231

Babacan, S., & Rand, A.G. 2005. Purification of Amylase from Honey. J Food. Sci. 70 (6): 1625-1630. doi:

Oddo, L.P., Piazza, M.G., & Pulcini, P. I999. Invertase activityin honey. Apidologie. 30 (1): 57-65. doi:

Belay, A., Haki, G.D., Birringer, M., Borck, H., Lee, Y.C., Kim, K.T., Baye, K., & Melaku, S. 2017. Enzyme activity, amino acid profiles and hydroxymethylfurfural content in Ethiopian monofloral honey. J. Food Sci. Technol. 54 (9): 2769-2778. doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-2713-6

Moussa, A., Noureddine, D., Saad, A., & Douichene, S. 2012. The Relationship between Fructose, Glucose and Maltose Content with Diastase Number and Anti-Pseudomonal Activity of Natural Honey Combined with Potato Starch. Organic. Chem. Curr. Res. 1 (6): 1-5.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 228 times
PDF - 75 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.